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Kenneth Shores
Kenneth Shores
Assistant Professor
Summary Statement

Studies education inequality and policy tools for its remediation.


  • Human Development and Family Studies - HDFS
  • Graduate Program
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  • 2010 – 2016 Ph.D., Education Policy Analysis, Stanford University, Graduation School of Education, Stanford, CA
  • 1999 – 2003 B.S., University of Rhode Island, Economics, Kingston, RI
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Currently Accepting Graduate Students
Office Address
234 Health and Human Development Building

I am an Assistant Professor at Pennsylvania State University studying education inequality and policy tools for its remediation. Relying on quantitative methodologies, this research includes both description and prevention/intervention.

On the descriptive side, I am primarily interested in using large datasets to document racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in student learning and educational policy (e.g., school disciplinary policy). I have additional work using conjoint survey designs to describe individual understanding of and preferences for social inequality. On the prevention/intervention side, I use quasi-experimental methods to identify the effects of environmental contexts on student outcomes as well as policies that are effective at remediating outcome inequality. 

  • Contextual determinants of educational disparities.
  • Achievement gaps.
  • Education policy.
  • K-12 Education finance.
  • Econometrics and quasi-experimental design.



Google Scholar Publication List

Current CV

Lara, B. and Shores, K. “Identifying Preferences for Equal College Access, Income, and Income Equality.Education, Finance and Policy. (Forthcoming).

Reardon, S., Kalogrides, D. and Shores, K. "The Geography of Racial /Ethnic Test Score Gaps." American Journal of Sociology. (Forthcoming).

Candelaria, C. and Shores, K. "Court-Ordered Finance Reforms in the Adequacy-Era: Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sensitivity." Education Finance and Policy. (Forthcoming).

Barata, G., Shores, K. and Alperin, J.P. "Local chatter or international buzz? Language differences on posts about Zika research on Twitter and Facebook." PLOS One. (2018).

Alperin, J.P., Hanson, E., Shores, K. and Haustein, S. “Twitter bot surveys: A discrete choice experiment to increase response rates.” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Social Media & Society. (2017).

Shores, K. and Loeb, S. "Distributive decisions in education: Goals, trade-Offs and feasibility constraints." Theory and Research in Education. (2016).       

Bischoff, K. and Shores, K. "The role of social science in action-guiding philosophy: The case of educational equity." Theory and Research in Education. (2015). [lead article]

Reardon, S., Valentino, R., and Shores, K. "Patterns of literacy among U.S. students." Future of Children. 22:2, 17-37 (2012).

Additional Information

Media Coverage:

2018 "‘You Are Still Black’: Charlottesville’s Racial Divide Hinders Students" The New York Times
2018 "The Numbers that Explain why the Teachers are in Revolt" The New York Times
2018 "The Next Educational Equity Battleground: Little-Noticed ESSA Provision to Allow
Parents to See Whether Districts Fund Schools Fairly"
2017 "10 Charts That Changed the Way We Think About America’s Schools in 2017"
2017 "America’s school funding is more progressive than many assume" The Economist.
2017 "The Great Recession decimated the economy. It also hurt student learning, according to pioneering new study" Chalkbeat.
2017 "DeVos says school spending and student outcomes aren’t related, but recent research suggests otherwise" Chalkbeat.
2017 "Do school districts spend less money on poor and minority students?" Brookings: Brown Center Chalkboard. (authored)
2017 "The College-Town Achievement Gap" The Atlantic.
2017 "Integration Works. Can it Survive the Trump Era?" The New York Times
2016 "Money, Race and Success: How Your School District Compares" The New York Times.
2016 "Achievement gaps matter, even if all students are learning" The Washington Post.
2016 "Study: Most School Districts Have Achievement Gaps" Education Week.
2016 "Achievement Gaps and Racial Segregation: Research Finds an Insidious Cycle" Education Week.