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Professor Emeritus

Phone: 814-865-1851

Fax: 814-867-1751


Ph.D., from University of Maryland

Research Interests

Youth development through leisure, leisure and health, and prevention

Selected Publications

Tibbits, M., Caldwell, L. L., Smith, E. A., & Wegner, L. (in press). The relation between leisure activity participation profiles and substance use among South African youth. World Leisure

Wegner, L. & Caldwell, L. L. (in press). Interventions for out-of-school contexts. In C. Ward & Dawes A. (Eds). Youth Violence in South Africa. HSRC press.

Caldwell, L. L. (in press). Using theory as basis for getting to outcomes. N. Stumbo (Ed.). Client Outcomes in Therapeutic Recreation Services, (2nd Ed.) State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Caldwell, L. L. (2009). Prevention through leisure education: Addressing youth risk behavior in China. Journal of Zhejiang University (Humanities and Social Sciences), 39, 112-120.

Caldwell, L. L. (2008). Youth development through leisure: A global perspective. World Leisure Journal, 50, 3-17.

Caldwell, L. L., Younker, A., Wegner, L., Patrick, M., Vergnani, T., Smith, E. A., & Flisher, A. (2008). Understanding leisure-related program effects by using process data in the HealthWise South Africa project. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26, 146-162.

Caldwell, L. L., Weichold, K., & Smith, E. A. (2006). Peer influence, substance use, and leisure: A cross cultural comparison. SUCHT (German Journal of Addiction Research and Practice) , 52, 261-267.

Caldwell, L. L., & Smith E. A. (2006). Leisure as a context for youth development and delinquency prevention. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 39.

Mpofu, E., Caldwell, L. L., Smith, E., Flisher, A. J., Mathews, C., Wegner, L., & Vergnani, T. (2006). Rasch Modleing of the structure of health risk behavior in South African adolescents. Journal of Applied Measurement, 7, 323-334.

Palen, L., Smith, E. A., Caldwell, L. L., Flisher, A. J. & Mpofu, E. (2006). Substance use and sexual risk behavior among South African eighth grade students. Journal of Adolescent Health.

Courses Taught

RPTM 433 Research and Evaluation in Recreation and Parks

RPTM 476 Leisure Education

RPTM 527 Social Psychology of Leisure

RPTM 570 Trends and Issues in Therapeutic Recreation

Strategic Themes

Human Development
Domains of Health and Behavior