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About the Lab

In the Rural Health Disparities (RHD) Lab, we conduct high-impact research on rural-urban and within rural health disparities in the US that have implications for policy, practice, and implementation. A key focus of the lab is on how place helps shape health outcomes. This includes accounting for differences in policy contexts, environmental exposures, built environments, economic contexts, and measures of rurality in explaining health disparities across place. To do this, we use spatial and multi-level modeling techniques of primary and secondary data. Current research activities in the RHD Lab are in the following interrelated topical areas:

  • Rural Health and the Built & Social Environment
  • Rural Health in a Changing Climate
  • Fundamental Determinants of Racial, Ethnic and Spatial Disparities in Rural Health 


In addition, the RHD Lab also creates space for graduate and undergraduate students interested in rural health disparities to develop their skills, network with scholars, and explore academic and non-academic careers related to rural health equity.


Get Involved

Current Graduate and Undergraduate Students:

  • Sign-up to receive monthly emails about upcoming RHD Lab Meetings where we'll hear from scholars and practitioners working on rural health disparities and health equity. Graduate and undergraduate students are welcome. To sign up, please email Dr. Danielle Rhubart at to be added to the email list.
  • Join the RHD Lab as an undergraduate research assistant to get experience. Undergraduate RAs can volunteer with the lab or receive credit via BBH 494 or honor’s thesis credit. To submit an application, please download the 
     and submit it to


Prospective Graduate Students:

  • We are currently accepting applications for a Ph.D. student whose research interests and experience align with the goals of the lab. Please send your CV and a detailed cover letter outlining your relevant work/course experience and interests in the RHD Lab to Dr. Rhubart (


Our research lab values diversity, equity and inclusion and is made stronger when different backgrounds and perspectives are part of our team. Please consider applying.

Lab Members


Dr. Danielle Rhubart is an Assistant Professor of Biobehavioral Health and Director of the Rural Health Disparities Lab.  She is trained as a Rural Sociologist and Demographer and studies rural population health and the social determinants of health. She uses large datasets to determine how place shapes health and well-being differently across groups of people. Her research has been published in Public Policy and Aging Report, Population Research and Policy Review, and Population and Environment, and as research reports and briefs at the Carsey School of Public Policy (University of New Hampshire), the Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion (Syracuse University), and the Center for Rural Pennsylvania.


Postdoctoral Scholar: 

Dr. Jennifer Kowalkowski is a Postdoctoral Scholar with the Rural Health Disparities Lab. She is a Registered Nurse with a Ph.D. in Nursing Science and a minor in Population Health from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her research focuses on how structural factors, including the nursing workforce, influence health and well-being across the lifespan. She uses mixed-methods, including grounded theory and social network analysis, to examine differential effects of policies, health systems, social structures, and the natural and built environments across the rural-urban continuum. Her research has been published in Transcultural Journal of Nursing, Western Journal of Nursing Research, and presented at both national and international rural health conferences. She has also published reports at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Wisconsin Center for Nursing, and the Rural Wisconsin Health Cooperative.


Undergraduate Research Assistants:

Erin McDermott is a fourth-year student pursuing a degree in Community, Environment, and Development, with a minor in Economics. She enjoys spending time in nature, cooking plant-based meals, and interning at the Penn State Student Farm.

Brian Johnson is a first-year student pursuing a double major in Mathematics and Economics. In his spare time, he performs music on the piano as well as the trombone and is a member of the Penn State Trombone Choir. 

Logan Wincott is a second-year student pursuing a double major in criminology and sociology. She enjoys spending time outdoors, socializing with friends, and is an active member of the Penn State Mock Trial Association.

Hannah Dauser is a third-year student pursuing a degree in psychology with a minor in sports studies. She loves to play with her three dogs and enjoys spending her spare time exercising and finding new healthy recipes.


Last Name
Postdoctoral Scholar, Rural Health and Disparities lab
Mentor: Dr. Danielle Rhubart
Summary Statement

My research examines structural factors, including the nursing workforce, that influence health and well-being across the lifespan to reduce rural health disparities through policy and practice innovations.

  • Rural Health Disparities Lab
Assistant Professor of Biobehavioral Health
Summary Statement

Dr. Rhubart is a rural sociologist and demographer with expertise in rural population health, spatial inequality, and the structural and social determinants of health.

  • Biobehavioral Health - BBH